Saturday, May 18, 2019

Computer Networks

Suresh Khanal calculating machine neting Short Questions and Answer www. psexam. com figurer meshworking Short Questions and Answers Suresh Khanal Kalanki, Kathmandu tele spread abroadprotected com electronic mailprotected com published By http//www. psexam. com contact emailprotected com Computer meshinging Short Questions and Answers Published by PS run Kalanki, Kathmandu Nepal www. psexam. com sterilize 2009 author.No fictitious character of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval carcass or catching in all(prenominal) ca engross or by both means, electronic, mechanical, phototranscripting, recording, s terminatening or differentwise pull go forth for own(prenominal) and non-commercial uptake without the prior written permission of the author. About the Author Suresh Khanal is a native of Kathmandu, Nepal, where he works as a freelance developer, programmer and technical writer/editor. He has been involved in teaching computers science since 1998 and everywhere the years has written some(prenominal) articles and tutorials on Office activitys and Web Programming.Khanal holds a Masters of Science Degree in In manikination Technology Science. In his sp atomic number 18 age, he enjoys travelling, posting in forums and play online games. Table of Contents transmittal Media What is infection media? What argon the types of infection media? strike bound contagion media. Describe unbound infection media. Bound Transmission Media excuse w toleratele pair production line. let off Co-axial cable. relieve eccentric-Optics cable. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 5 fulfill the pursuance types of touchors with the cables to which they be employ. Comp be BNC with UTP agate lines unbound Transmission Media cond one and only(a) Radio Wave. What is Microwave? List the Advantages of microwaves. What atomic number 18 the Disadvantages of Microwaves? Describe Infra Red. Computer Ne devilrk What is a computer ne dickensrk? Wha t atomic number 18 the advantages of interlockinging? Explain Network run 8 9 9 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 What ar the five study profit religious service? What is Network master of ceremonies? What is a client? What is a dedicated waiter? What is work postal service? What argon dumb terminals? Types of Computer Network What is a topical anaesthetic ara meshing? What is MAN? What is nauseated? illuminate Enterprise sickishs.Clarify planetary WANs. What argon the two types of local area net profit? communications protocols What is a protocol? What are the three major network protocols? Match the heeding protocols and their functions local area network maskingologies What are the two network connection types? Explain Point-to-Point connection type. Explain multi contingent connection. What are the basic LAN topologies? Explain bus regional anatomy analysis situs. What are the advantages of bus topology? 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 23 What are the disadvantages of bus topology? What is butt on Topology? Point out the major advantages of Ring Topology.Point out the disadvantages of Ring Topology. Explain Star Topology. What are the benefits of Star Topology? What are the disadvantages of Star Topology? What are the popular topologies other than basic Topologies? Network Standards What is a Networking Standard? What are the four major industry amounts? What is an Ethernet? How an Ethernet Worked? What is Medium Access condition of Ethernet? Explain Ethernet Frame. List rough advantages of Ethernet. What are the disadvantages of Ethernet Cabling? What is ARCNet? List the advantages of ARCNet. What are the disadvantages of ARCNet?How does a emblem-Passing Protocol works? 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 32 32 32 Explain Logical Ring Physical Star topology for minimal-Passing Standard. 32 List roughly close to usable advantages of Token Ring. 33 Point out the disadvantages of Token Ring. What do you mean by Beaconing and Auto-Reconfiguration? Network computer architecture What is Network computer architecture? What are the popular Network computer architectures? Explain ISOs OSI Architecture Explain IBMs SNA Architecture Networking ensample Explain Peer-to-Peer Networking Model. Explain thickening/Server Networking Model.Network and meshwork Terminologies NICs Hubs/recidivists connectedness up Router Switches Transceivers Gate focal point Proxy Serer Firew exclusively Node tuner receiver Network network WWW 34 34 34 34 35 35 36 37 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 41 42 42 43 43 43 43 45 45 IRC CU-SeeMe Telnet Gopher hypertext mark-up language Browsers Dialup affiliation IP Address Domain Name uniform resource locator Web look for or Surfing reflexion for locomotive engine Meta Search locomotive engine Internet Access Extranet Intranet Web Index Hypertext Email Email channelise Inbox Outbox Trash CC 46 47 48 49 49 50 53 53 54 54 54 55 57 57 58 58 58 59 59 59 60 60 61 61 BCC Reply Forward Attachments Bounced Netiquette Emoticons 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 Table of designings depict 1 UTP Cable 2 realise 2 UTP Cable connection 2 general anatomy 3 s.t.p. Cable 3 omen 4 STP Cable building 3 experience 5 Co-Axial Cable 4 sort 6 Co-Axial Cable Structure 4 prototype 7 Co-Axial Cable Connectors 5 go by dint of and through 8 Fibre Optics Cable Structure 6 augur 9 Fiber Optics Cable 6 public figure 10 AUI Connector 7 prognosticate 11 BNC Connector 7 range of a function 12 RJ45 Connector 8 accede 13 SC Connector 8 get word 14 Comparison amongst writhe Pairs and Co-Axial Cable 9 chthonian ache 15 Radio Wave Transmission 9 recruit 16 Microwave Transmission 10 strain 17 Microwave Transmitter, Receiver and recidivist 10 check 18 infrared emission cunning Error bookmark not defined. range of a function 19 Computer Network 12 insure 20 Work mail service 14 Figure 21 Dumb Terminal 15 Figure 22 Wide nation Network 16 Figur e 23 Enterprise WAN 17 Figure 24 TCP/IP Structure 18 Figure 25 IPX/SPX Structure 19 Figure 26 Different LAN Topologies 20 Figure 27 Bus Topology 21 Figure 28 Bus Topology Network affiliated with other network 22 Figure 29 T Connector 22 Figure 30 Different Cable Terminators 23 Figure 31 Ring Topology 24 Figure 32 Star Topology 25 Figure 33 Star Topology 26 Figure 34 Tre Topology Error Bookmark not defined. Figure 35 Mesh Topology Error Bookmark not defined.Figure 36 Ethernet Network 29 Figure 37 ARCNet Board and Card 31 Figure 38 Network with MSAU 33 Figure 39 ISOs OSI Architecture 35 Figure 40 OSI an SNA Comparision 36 Figure 41 LAN NIC Card 38 Figure 42 Hub 39 Figure 43 Bridge 40 Figure 44 Router 41 Figure 45 Switch 41 Figure 46 Transceiver 42 Figure 47 Gateway PC 43 Figure 48 advancedork with wireless(prenominal) Stations 44 Figure 49 Tim Berners Lee 45 Figure 50 Yahoo Chat 46 Figure 51 CU SeeMe 47 Figure 52 CU SeeMe Conferencing 48 Figure 53 Telnet Screen 48 Figure 54 Differe nt Browsers Logo 50 Figure 55 Mozilla Firefox 51 Figure 56 Netscape navigator 51 Figure 57 Internet Explorer 52 Figure 58 Google chromium-plate 52 Figure 59 IP Address Structure 53 Figure 60 IP Address and Subnet Mask 53Figure 61 Yahoo, collect, MSN, Google Search Engines Figure 62 Alta Vista Search Engine Figure 63 Lycos Figure 64 Meta Search Engine Figure 65 Web Index Figure 66 Hypertext and Hyper Link Figure 67 Email Client porthole Figure 68 New Email Message Figure 69 Emoticons 55 56 56 57 58 59 60 61 63 Computer Networking Short Questions and Answers Suresh Khanal Kalanki, Kathmandu emailprotected com emailprotected com Published By http//www. psexam. com contact emailprotected com Computer Networking Short Questions and Answers parting of Suresh Khanal for PS interrogatory Transmission Media What is transmission media? Transmission media is a laneway through which data are transmitted in network.We use different types of cables or waves to transmit data. What are the typ es of transmission media? There are two types of transmission media fixly bound transmission media and unbound transmission media. Describe bound transmission media. Bound transmission media are the cables that are tangible or perplex material embodyence and are limited by the somatogenetic geography. Popular bound transmission media in use are twisted pair cable, co-axial cable and fiber optical cable. Describe unbound transmission media. Unbound transmission media are the ways of transmitting data without using any cables. These media are not bounded by physiologic geography.Microwave, Radio wave, Infra red are some of popular unbound transmission media. Bound Transmission Media Explain twisted pair cable. A pair of telegrams twisted with each other is know as twisted pair cable. A set of four pairs of twisted wires are bundled to form cable. These are the just about common medium for LAN. Wires are twisted with each other so as to reduce the interference. http//www. psexam. com sc entirelyywag 1 part of Suresh Khanal for PS interrogation Figure 1 UTP Cable Figure 2 UTP Cable Connector paginate 2 http//www. psexam. com component of Suresh Khanal for PS mental test We jakes pick up two types of twisted pair cables, namely Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable (UTP) and Shielded Twisted Pair Cable (STP).The twisted pair cable that is protected against electro-magnetic interference (EMI) is cognise as STP and the one which is not shielded against EMI is called Unshielded Twisted Pair. Figure 3 STP Cable 1Jacket 2Shield-braid 3Shield-foil 4Solid twisted pair 5Drain wire Figure 4 STP Cable Structure http//www. psexam. com knave 3 voice of Suresh Khanal for PS examen Explain Co-axial cable. A solid central conductor surrounded by insulating material and then by a cylindrical shield woven from fine wires is known as co-axial cable. The shield is commonly connected to electrical ground to reduce electrical interference. Co-axial cables have broader bandwi dth and thus suitable for audio, movie data transmission. Figure 5 Co-Axial Cable Figure 6 Co-Axial Cable Structure scalawag 4 http//www. psexam. com theatrical role of Suresh Khanal for PS trial run Figure 7 Co-Axial Cable Connectors Explain Fiber-Optics cable. A cable with central glass tube coered with stay freshive shield which transmit data using photons is fiber optics cable. These cables transmit data via concentrated bursts of laser beams which are carried through bundles of hair thin glass fibers. They have advantages over electronic cables in transmission travel rapidly and volume. This technology has revolutionized telecommunication applications which used electronic cables. Fiber optics cables as free from electromagnetic interference as comfortably as wire tapping. http//www. sexam. com knave 5 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS mental test Figure 8 Fibre Optics Cable Structure Figure 9 Fiber Optics Cable foliate 6 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Sur esh Khanal for PS interrogation Match the following types of connectors with the cables to which they are used. Cable (a) Thick Coax (100 Base 5), (b) UTP (10 Base-T), (c) Fiber Optics (10 Base-FL) (d) Thin Coax (100 Base 5) Connectors (1) AUI, (2) BNC, (3) RJ45, (4) SC or ST Type Answer- a - 1, b - 3, c - 4, d - 2 Figure 10 AUI Connector Figure 11 BNC Connector http//www. psexam. com scallywag 7 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 12 RJ45 ConnectorFigure 13 SC Connector Compare BNC with UTP Cables BNC Derived from the compact Ethernet Coaxial Cable Flexibility of adding guests scummyer price and no need of Hub Difficult to locate faults Terminators unavoidable The cabling is comparatively less reliable Single segment length ( thickener to node) up to 180 meters UTP Derived from telephone cable Decided by Hub ports Needs Hubs Introduction of Hub makes fault come oning much easier Terminators not needed inherently much reliable Single segment length up to 200 mete rs Page 8 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 14 Comparison mingled with Twisted Pairs and Co-Axial Cable Unbound Transmission MediaUnbound transmission media ext quit beyond the limiting confines of cabling. They provide an excellent communication alternative for WANS. The inadequacy of physical restrictions provides bigger bandwidth as well as wide area capabilities. Unbound media typicly carry at very high frequencies. The three types of unbound transmission media are Radio wave, Micro wave, Infrared Explain Radio Wave. Although Radio waves are prevalent and well understood, we are just beginning to acquire their enormous potential as a networking medium. Radio waves faeces operate on a whizz or quintuple absolute relative frequency bands. Figure 15 Radio Wave Transmission http//www. psexam. com Page 9 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam What is Microwave?Microwaves have been used in data communication theory for a long time. T hey have a higher frequency than tuner waves and therefore female genitals handle larger inwardnesss of data. Microwave transmission is line of sight transmission. The transmit station moldiness be in perceptible contact with the receive station. This sets a limit on the distance among stations depending on the local geography. Typically the line of sight due to the Earths curvature is unless 50 km to the horizon Repeater stations must be placed so the data augur can hop, skip and cut through across the country. Figure 16 Microwave Transmission Figure 17 Microwave Transmitter, Receiver and Repeater Page 10 http//www. psexam. comContribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Microwaves operate at high operating(a) frequencies of 3 to 10 GHz. This allows them to carry large quantities of data due to their large bandwidth. List the Advantages of microwaves. a. They use up no right of way acquisition between towers. b. They can carry high quantities of training due to their high op erating frequencies. c. Low be land purchase each tower occupies only a small area. d. High frequency/ nobble wavelength signals require small antennae. What are the Disadvantages of Microwaves? a. Attenuation by solid butts birds, rain, snow and fog. b. Reflected from flat surfaces same(p) water and metal. c. Diffracted (split) around solid objects. d.Refracted by atmosphere, thus causing beam to be projected remote from receiver. Describe Infra Red. Infrared offers a great unbound photonic solution. Like fiber-optic cabling, infrared communications use light, so they are not bound by the limitations of electricity. Figure 18 Infrared Device http//www. psexam. com Page 11 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Computer Network What is a computer network? Computer Network is a collection of distributed intelligent machines that are connected with each other with transmission media for the purpose of data sha battalion, communication and sha call up of computer re sources. Fi gure 19 Computer NetworkWhat are the advantages of Networking? The following are the distinct notes in favor of computer networking. a. The computers, staff and training can be well managed b. A network provides the means to exchange data among the computers and to make programs and data available to people c. It permits the sha circle of the resources of the machine d. Networking also provides the function of back-up. e. Networking provides a flexible networking surroundings. Employees can work at home by using through networks ties through networks into the computer at office. Page 12 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Explain Network ServicesNetwork services are the thing that a network can do. The major networking services are ? ? ? ? ? File Services This includes file transfer, storage, data migration, file update, synchronization and achieving. Printing Services This service produces shared entre to valuable printing subterfuges. Message Servi ces This service facilitates email, voice mails and coordinate object oriented applications. Application Services This services allows to centralize high profile applications to increase performance and scalability Database Services This involves coordination of distributed data and replication. What are the five major network services? Major Network Services are a. b. c. d. e.File Services Print Services Message Services Application Services Database Services What is Network Server? Network Server is a computer in Network that is designated to provide one or much network service. For example file server, database server etceteratera What is a client? A computer in network that connects to the server and uses the network services to perform substance abusers tasks is a client. http//www. psexam. com Page 13 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam What is a dedicated server? A network server designated to provide one position service is known as dedicated server. For example if a computer is assigned for database service only then that computer is known as dedicated database server. What is workstation?A workstation is a node in network that is much powerful and can handle local information processing or graphics processing. A workstation usually has an bum, small hard disk to carry out local tasks. Figure 20 Workstation galore(postnominal) workstations that have no disk cram of their own is known as diskless-workstation or dumb terminals. They terminals all told rely on LAN for their chafe. Network operating system lets the node work as if all the resources at the server belong to the node itself. What are dumb terminals? Those Workstations that have no disk drive of their own and rely completely on LAN for their access are called dumb terminals.The network operating system lets these terminals work as if all the resources at the server belong to the workstation itself. Page 14 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figur e 21 Dumb Terminal Types of Computer Network Computer networks deterioration into three classes regarding the size, distance and the structure namely LAN (Local theatre of operations Network), MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), WAN (Wide Area Network). A LAN get togethers a small group of functionally akin workstations within a local geographic area such(prenominal) as a series of adjacent cubicles or offices on the same floor. Once the network expands to include other floors or divers office within a metropolitan area, it becomes a MAN. Finally, a WAN is simply a LAN of LANs.WANs expand the boundaries of networking to a global or even galactic scale. What is a LAN? A LAN is a Local Area Network, within a single building or a specific confined space. LANs typically even out only one transmission media type such as coaxial cable or twisted pair. LANs are characterized by comparatively high-speed communications. These high speeds are possible because LANs use one physique of cab le which generally is limited to 5 km or less. http//www. psexam. com Page 15 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam What is MAN? MAN stands for Metropolitan Area Networks. MAN is larger than a LAN and as its name implies, covers the area of a single city.MANs rarely extend beyond 100 KM and a great deal comprise a combination of different computer hardware and transmission media. The two or so important components of MANs are security and quantityization. Security is important because information is being shared between dissimilar systems. Standardization is necessity to ensure reliable data communication. What is WAN? A wide area network is simply a LAN of LANs. WANs connect LANs that may be on opposite sides of a building, across the country or around the world. WANS are characterized by the slowest data communication rates and the largest distances. WANs can be of two types an enterprise WAN and Global WAN. Figure 22 Wide Area NetworkClarify Enterprise WANs. An enterprise WAN connects an entire organization including all LANs at various sites. This term is used for large, widespread organizations such as corporations, universities and governments. Page 16 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 23 Enterprise WAN Clarify Global WANs. Global WANs also span the world but they do not have to connect LANS within a single organization. The Internet is an example of a global WAN. It connects diverse locations, organizations and institutions throughout the world. Global WANS can be public or private. Private WANs are called Intranet which belongs to an organization.Public WANs are open to everybody so that anybody can connect and use the resources and services available. What are the two types of LAN? There are basically two types of Local Area Networks namely Arcnet and Ethernet. http//www. psexam. com Page 17 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Protocols What is a protocol? The term protocol refers to a set of rules a nd procedures that govern the transmission of messages over a physical networking medium. The most common network protocols are (a) TCP/IP, (b) IPX/SPX and (c) NetBEUE What are the three major network protocols? The three major network protocols are 1. TCP/IP 2. IPX/SPX (Used in Novell Netware) 3. NetBEUE (Product of Microsoft Co. ) Figure 24 TCP/IP StructurePage 18 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 25 IPX/SPX Structure Match the following protocols and their functions (a) http, (b) pop, (c) ftp, (d) smtp, (e) MIME, 1. Send email messages 2. Transfer multimedia information 3. Send email attachment 4. Transfer files in servers and clients computers 5. Receive email messages Answer (a) - 2, (b) - 5, (c) - 4, (d) - 1, (e) - 3 http//www. psexam. com Page 19 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam LAN Topologies The term topology defines the geographic arrangement of networking devices. It describes the actual layout of the network hardware.Given t he location of workstations and peripherals, the goal of topology is to find the most economic and efficient way to connect all the users to the network resources while providing adequate capacity to handle user demands, maintain system reliability and minimize delay. Figure 26 Different LAN Topologies The selection of a topology for a network can not be done in isolation as it affects the choice of media and the access method used. Because it determines the strategy used in wiring a building for a network and deserves some careful study. What are the two network connection types? The two different network connection types are (a) point-to-point connection and (b) multipoint connection. Explain Point-to-Point connection type. A point-to-point connection is a direct link between two devices such as a computer and a printer.Most of todays point-to-point connections are associated with modems and PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) communications. Page 20 http//www. psexam. com C ontribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Explain multipoint connection. A multipoint connection is a link between three or to a greater extent devices. Historically, multipoint connections were used to attach central CPs to distributed dumb terminals. In todays LAN environments, multipoint connections link many network devices in various configurations. What are the basic LAN topologies? The three transparent LAN topologies that are combined to form any practical topology are known as basic LAN topologies.They are, Bus Topology, Ring Topology and Star Topology. Explain Bus Topology. The physical Bus topology is the simplest and most widely used of the network designs. It consists of one continuous length of cable ( luggage compartment) and a terminating resistor (terminator) at each end. Data communication message travels along the bus in both(prenominal) directions until it is picked up by a workstation or server NIC. If the message is missed or not recognized, it reaches the en d of the cabling and dissipates at the terminator. Figure 27 Bus Topology http//www. psexam. com Page 21 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam All nodes on the bus topology have equal access to the trunk.This is accomplished using short drop cables or direct T-connectors. The number of devices and the length of the trunk can be soft expanded. Figure 28 Bus Topology Network connected with other network Figure 29 T Connector Page 22 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 30 Different Cable Terminators What are the advantages of bus topology? The advantages of physical bus topology are a. It uses established standards and it is relatively mild to install. b. It requires less media than other topologies. http//www. psexam. com Page 23 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam What are the disadvantages of bus topology?The disadvantages of bus topology are a. The bus networks are difficult to reconfigure, especially when the acceptable number of conn ections or maximum distances have been reached. b. They are also difficult to troubleshoot because everything happens on a single media segment. This can have dangerous consequences because any break in the cabling brings the network to its knee. What is Ring Topology? The physical ring topology is a circular loop of point-to-point links. Each device connects directly to the ring or indirectly through and embrasure device or drop cable. Message travel around the ring from node to node in a very organized manner.Each workstation checks the message for a change courseing destination make out. If the address doesnt match the node simply regenerates the message and sends it on its way. If the address matches, the node accepts the message and sends a suffice to the originating sender. Figure 31 Ring Topology Page 24 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Point out the major advantages of Ring Topology. The advantages of ring topologies are a. They are very e asy to troubleshoot because each device incorporates a repeater. b. A special familiar feature called beaconing allows troubled workstations to identify themselves quickly. Point out the disadvantages of Ring Topology.The disadvantages of ring topologies are a. It is considerably difficult to install and reconfigure ring topology b. Media failure on unidirectional or single loop causes complete network failure. Explain Star Topology. The physical spark advance topology uses a central controlling hub with dedicated legs pointing in all directions like points of a star. Each network device has a dedicated point-to-point link to the central hub. This strategy prevents troublesome collisions and keeps the lines of communications open and free of commerce. Figure 32 Star Topology http//www. psexam. com Page 25 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam This topology, obviously, require a great deal of cabling.This design provides an excellent platform for reconfiguration and troublesh ooting. Changes to the network are as simple as plugging another(prenominal) segment into the hub and a break in the LAN is easy to isolate and doesnt affect the rest of the network. Figure 33 Star Topology What are the benefits of Star Topology? The benefits of star topology are a. Relatively easy to configure. b. Easy to troubleshoot c. Media faults are automatically isolated to the failed segment. What are the disadvantages of Star Topology? The disadvantages are considered as follows a. Requires more cable than most topologies. b. Moderately difficult to install. Page 26 http//www. sexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam What are the popular topologies other than basic Topologies? Apart from basic topologies some other topologies deserving considering are mesh topology (every device connected to all other devices), Cellular Topology (wireless point to pint and multipoint design), Tree Topology (Hierarchical connections of devices), Hybrid topology (combination of t wo or more basic topologies). Figure 34 Tre Topology Figure 35 Mesh Topology Network Standards What is a Networking Standard? Protocol (the logical component) and Topology (the physical component) is combined together to pretend a networking standard.These standards are developed and controlled by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). What are the four major industry standards? The four major industry standards are (a) Ethernet, Token Ring, ARCNet and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface). http//www. psexam. com Page 27 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam What is an Ethernet? The Ethernet topology was developed at the University of Hawaii to connect computers on the various Islands. It was intercommunicate based design. Later, Robert Metacalfe went to Xeross Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) laboratories and eliminated the radio portion and changed to co-axial cabling. Ethernet is ne of the most popular LAN technologies in use today covering more tha n 85% of the networks. Ethernet system consists of three basic elements 4. The physical medium use to carry Ethernet signals between computers on the network 5. A set of rules (protocols) embedded in each Ethernet interface that will decide how multiple computers on the network will have access to the data on the medium. 6. An Ethernet bod that consists of a interchangeable set of bits used to carry data over the system. How an Ethernet Worked? The operation of Ethernet can be described in simple terms as follows Each computer on the Ethernet Network, also known as a node, operates independently of all other nodes.All nodes attached to an Ethernet are connected to a shared medium over which the Ethernet signals travel serially, one data bit at a time. To send data a station first listens to the channel and when the channel is idle the station transmits its information in the form of an Ethernet frame, or sheaf. The Ethernet rules (protocol) are defined in such a way that every no de gets a fair amount of frame transmission opportunity. Page 28 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 36 Ethernet Network As each Ethernet frame is direct out on the shared medium, the Ethernet interfaces inside the node look at the destination address.The interfaces compare the destination address of the frame with their own address. The Ethernet interface with the same address as the destination address in the frame will read the entire frame and all other network interfaces will ignore the information. What is Medium Access Control of Ethernet? The set of rules which ensures that every node in an Ethernet gets a fair amount of frame transmission opportunity, are called the Medium Access Control mechanism. The Medium Access Control mechanism is based on a system called Carrier feel Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMD/CD). Explain Ethernet Frame. The heart of Ethernet system is the Ethernet Frame, which is used to deliver information between the computers.The frame consists of a set of bits organized into several fields. These fields include address fields, a data field and an error checking field that checks the integrity of the bits in the frame to make sure that the frame has arrived intact. http//www. psexam. com Page 29 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam List some advantages of Ethernet. Ethernets major advantages are 1. It is an inexpensive way to achieve high speed LAN transmissions (10 to 100 MB/s) 2. It is a proven technology that supports various writing configurations. 3. It works well with a large number of LAN and micro-tomainframe applications. 4. It is easy to install. What are the disadvantages of Ethernet Cabling?The Ethernet cabling ahs the following disadvantages 1. Ethernet is not a high-level performer in high-load environments. This protocol (CSMA/CD Carrier wiz Multiple Access/Collision Detection) can slow down dramatically if hundreds of workstations are competing for the same cab ling trunk 2. Its linear bus cabling system can sometimes make it difficult to isolate problems. Page 30 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam What is ARCNet? The Attached Resource Computer Network (ARCNet) standard was created in 1977 at the Data Point Corporation by a scientist John Murphy. ARCNet uses the token-passing protocol over a star and bus topology.The star and bus topology combines the flexibility of a star with the simplicity and throughput of a bus. Thus, ARCNet standard has a unique protocol/topology combination token-passing protocol and Distributed star/bus topology. Figure 37 ARCNet Board and Card http//www. psexam. com Page 31 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam List the advantages of ARCNet. Here are some of the ARCNets advantages 1. It is extremely reliable. 2. ARCNet is easy to install and troubleshoot. 3. It has an excellent track record of interoperability for those using ARCNet components from various manufacturers. 4. ARCNe t supports a variety of cable types including coaxial, UTP and Fiber Optics. 5.It is inexpensive and built to stay that way. What are the disadvantages of ARCNet? Here are some disadvantages of ARCNet 1. Standard ARCNet is very slow (2. 5 Mb/s). It is almost seven times slower than Token Ring. 2. ARCNet was not designed with interconnectivity in mind. For many installations, its difficult to go beyond the confines of single LAN. How does a Token-Passing Protocol works? The token-passing protocol relies on a control signal called the token. A token is a 24-bit packet that circulates throughout the network from NIC to NIC in an orderly fashion. If a workstation wants to transmit a message, first it must seize the token.At that point, the workstation has complete control over the communications channel. The existence of only one token eliminates the opening night of signal collisions. This means that only one station can speak at a time. Explain Logical Ring Physical Star topology for Token-Passing Standard. It is sure that any break in the ring at any point will interrupt communications for all machines. To solve this problem, IBM developed a modified ring topology, which they called the logical ring Page 32 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam physical star. The central point of the physical star configuration is Token Ring hub called the multi-station access unit (MSAU, pronounced as masow).Workstations and servers attached to the MSAU through special STP adapter cables. IBM converted stars into a logical ring by connecting all MSAU hubs together through special ring-in (RI) and ring-out (RO) ports. Figure 38 Network with MSAU List some most useful advantages of Token Ring. Here are Token rings most useful advantages a. It offers excellent throughput under high-load conditions. b. Token Ring facilitates LAN-to-LAN mainframe connections especially for interfacing with IBMs broader connectivity strategies. c. It has built-in troubles hooting mechanisms such as beaconing and auto-reconfiguration and may now be used with UTP cabling. http//www. psexam. com Page 33 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam d.It has the most reliable protocol (token-passing), the most trouble-free configuration (physical star) and the fastest connectivity scheme (r or 16 mb/s). Point out the disadvantages of Token Ring. Few of the disadvantages of Token Ring are a. Token Ring is very expensive. All topology components cost much more than other more popular standards. b. It is relatively proprietary. Token Rings complexity is built into the hardware components. This means hat you need to choose a manufacturer and stick with it. c. Engineers must have massive expertise to manage and troubleshoot token ring components. What do you mean by Beaconing and AutoReconfiguration?When a station does not receive a message from its nearest active upstream neighbor, it sends out a warning, otherwise known as a beacon. This beacon alerts everyone that something is wrong and helps to isolate the failure domain. When beacon occurs, the ring will act to fix the problem without your intervention. This process of self-healing is called auto-reconfiguration. Network Architecture What is Network Architecture? When two or more computer are connected with one another for the purpose of communicating data electronically, besides physical connection of computers, communication devices and system servers, a well defined standard known as architecture is required to establish cohesive communication between devices in Network. Page 34 http//www. psexam. om Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam What are the popular Network Architectures? The most popular architectures are a. ISO Open System Architecture (OSI) b. IBMs System Network Architecture (SNA) Explain ISOs OSI Architecture The Open System Interconnection (OSI) is a standard reference model for communication between two end users in a network. It is used in developing products and understanding networks which means commonly used Internet product and services fit within the model. The OSI model describes seven layers of think functions that needed at each end, when a message is sent from one party to another party in a network.Each layer has its own set of special related function as follows Figure 39 ISOs OSI Architecture http//www. psexam. com Page 35 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam class 7 Application Layer Application programs that use the network. Layer 6 Presentation Layer Standardize data presented to the application. Layer 5 Session Layer Manages sessions between applications Layer 4 carry Layer Provides error detection and correction Layer 3 Network Layer Provides data pitch shot across the physical connection Layer 2 Data Link Layer Provides data delivery across the physical connection Layer 1 Physical Layer Defines the physical network media.Explain IBMs SNA Architecture SNA is a computer networking architecture that was de veloped by IBM to provide a network structure for IBM mainframe, midrange, and personal computer systems. SNA defines a set of proprietary communication protocols and message formats for the exchange and management of data on IBM host networks. Figure 40 OSI an SNA Comparision Page 36 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam SNA can be used for the following types of tasks ? Terminal access to mainframe and midrange computer applications. File transfer of data between computer systems. Printing of mainframe and midrange data on SNA printers.Program-to-program communications that allow applications to exchange data over the network. ? ? ? SNA can be implemented in a networking infrastructure that uses either a hierarchical or peer-to-peer model. Networking Model Explain Peer-to-Peer Networking Model. A networking model where each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities is known as peer-to-peer model. There is no central server in this netw ork and computers join hands to share files, printers and Internet access. It is practical for workgroups of a dozen or less computers making it common environments, where each PC acts as an independent workstation that stores data on its own disk but which can share it with all other PCs on the network.Software for peer-to-peer network is included with most modern desktop operating systems such as Windows and Mac OS. Explain Client/Server Networking Model. A networking model where one or more powerful computers (servers) provide the different network services and all other users computers (clients) access those services to perform users tasks is known as client/server networking model. Client-server networking model became popular in the late 1980s and early 1990s as many http//www. psexam. com Page 37 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam applications were migrated from centralized minicomputers and mainframes to networks of persona computers.The design of applications for a d istributed computing environment required that they effetely be divided into two parts client (front end) and server (back end). The network model on which they were implemented mirrored this client-server model with a users PC (the client) typically acting as the requesting machine and a more powerful server machine to which it was connected via either a LAN or a WAN acting as the supplying machine. It requires special networking operating system. It provides user level security and it is more expensive. Network and Internet Terminologies NICs Network interface cards, commonly referred to as NICs are used to connect a PC to a network.The NIC provides a physical connection between the networking medium and the computers internal bus, and is obligated for facilitating an access method to the network. Most NICs are designed for a particular type of network, protocol and media, although some can serve multiple networks. Figure 41 LAN NIC Card Page 38 http//www. psexam. com Contributio n of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Hubs/Repeaters Hubs/Repeaters are used to connect together two or more network segments of any media type. In larger design, signal quality begins to deteriorate as segment exceeds their maximum length. A hub provides the signal amplification required to allow a segment to be extended a greater distance. inactive hub simply forwards any data packets they receive over one port from one workstation to all their remaining ports.Active hubs, also sometimes referred to as multiport repeaters, regenerate the data bits in order to maintain a strong signal. Figure 42 Hub Bridges The bridge function is to connect separate homogeneous networks. Bridges map the Ethernet address of the nodes residing on each network segment and allow only necessary traffic to pass through the bridge. When a packet is received by the bridge, the bridge determines the destination and source segments. If the segments are different, then the packet is forwarded to the correct segment . Bridges are also called store-and-forward device because they look at the on the whole Ethernet packet before making filtering or promotion decisions. ttp//www. psexam. com Page 39 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 43 Bridge Router Routing achieved commercially popularity in the mid 1980s at a time when large-scale Internetworking began to replace the fairly simple, homogeneous environments. Routing is the act of moving information across an Internetwork from a source to a destination. It is often contrasted with bridging, which perform a similar function. Routers use information within each packet to route it from one LAN to another, and communicate with each other and share information that allows them to determine the top hat route through a complex network of many LANs.Page 40 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 44 Router Switches LAN switches are an expansion of the concept in LAN bridging, which controls data flow, handl es transmission errors, provides physical addressing, and manages access to the physical medium. Switches provide these functions by using various link-layer protocols. LAN switches can link four, six, ten or more networks together. A storeand-forward switch, on the other hand, accepts and analyses the entire packet before forwarding it to its destination. Figure 45 Switch http//www. psexam. com Page 41 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam TransceiversTransceivers are used to connect nodes to the various Ethernet media. Most computers and network interface cards contain a builtin 10BaseT or 10Base2 transceiver, allowing them to be connected directly to Ethernet without requiring an external transceiver. Many Ethernet devices provide an AUI connector to allow the user to connect to any media type via an external transceiver. Figure 46 Transceiver Gateway A Gateway is a device such as a mini or microcomputer capable of operating on a stand alone basis but which also provides conn ection for communication with the other computers and access to shared resources. Page 42 http//www. psexam. comContribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 47 Gateway PC Proxy Serer Also called a proxy or application level gateway. It is an application that breaks the connection between sender and receiver. Thus, it helps us to prevent hacker from obtaining Internet address and detail of a private network. Firewall Firewall is a method for keeping a network secure. It is mostly used in giving users access to the Internet in a secure fashion as well as to separate a companys public meshing server from its internal network. Node A node is a hardware device or group of devices or station in a network that link one or more other unit to the network. Wireless NetworkThe most and latest wireless LANs use electromagnetic airwaves either infrared or radio frequency to communicate information from one point to another without relaying on a physical connection. Radio waves are often ref erred to as radio carriers because they simply perform the function of delivering energy to a remote receiver. The http//www. psexam. com Page 43 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam data being transmitted is superimposed on the radio carrier so that it can be accurately extracted at the receiving end. Multiple radio carriers can exist in the same space at the same time without interfering with each other if the radio waves are transmitted on different radio frequencies. Figure 48 Nework with Wireless StationsIn a typical WLAN configuration, a transmitter/receiver (transceiver) device, called an Access Point (AP), connects to the wired network from a frozen location using standard Ethernet cable. The Access Point receives, buffers, and transmits data between the WLAN and the Page 44 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam wired network infrastructures. A single Access Point can support a small group of users and can function within a range of less than one hundred to several hundred feet. The Access Point (or the antenna attached to the Access Point) is usually mounted high but may be mounted essentially anywhere that is practical as long as the desired radio coverage is obtained.The wireless network, printers or other peripherals can be shared through a connected PC. The devices then communicate using a set of speechless high-frequency radio waves. An Access Point device connects to a DSL or cable modem and enables high-rate (broadband) Internet access for the entire network. Internet Internet is the large worldwide network of computes that facilitates data communication services, file transfer, electronic mail, World Wide Web and newsgroup with common protocols. WWW Figure 49 Tim Berners Lee http//www. psexam. com Page 45 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam The WWW is the brainchild of Tim Berners Lee a CERN who had the idea of creating an electronic weathervane of research information.The entanglement is currently the fastest growing Internet information system, with new resources being added regularly. The meshing relies on a set of protocols, conventions and software to operate. The web is a distributed system of delivering linked documents over the Internet. It is called a distributed system because information can reside on different computers around the world. Yet be easily linked together using hypertext. The web uses hypertext to create links from together using hypertext. The web uses hyperte3xt to create links from one resource to another. A hypertext link is usually displayed by highlighted and underlined text on the page. A hypertext link or hyperlink can also be graphic that acts as a button linking to another resource. IRCInternet Relay Chat (IRC) is a system for sending public and private message to other users in real time that is, your message appears on the recipients screen as soon as you type it. Figure 50 Yahoo Chat Page 46 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khan al for PS Exam CU-SeeMe CU-SeeMe is a video conferencing system that allows users to send and receive sound and pictures simultaneously over the Internet. Figure 51 CU SeeMe http//www. psexam. com Page 47 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 52 CU SeeMe Conferencing Telnet It is a protocol or set of rules that enables a computer to connect another computer in network. It is also known as a remote login. The telnet operates on client-server principle. Figure 53 Telnet Screen Page 48 http//www. psexam. comContribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Gopher The ghoper is a protocol designed to search, retrieve and display documents from remote sites on the Internet. The Ghoper was created as a piece of software to utilize some of the services that were becoming available on the Internet. HTML HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a standard coding language used to create all web documents (pages). http//www. psexam. com Page 49 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Browsers Figure 54 Different Browsers Logo A web web grader is the Internet Client software that acts as an interface between the user and the inner-workings of the Internet, specifically the WWW.We can find graphical web browser that displays multimedia content of text, graphics, audio and video, and text web Page 50 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam browser that displays only text. Internet Explorer, Netscape, Firefox are graphical web browser and Lynx is a well known text browser. Figure 55 Mozilla Firefox Figure 56 Netscape Navigator http//www. psexam. com Page 51 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 57 Internet Explorer Figure 58 Google Chrome Page 52 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Dialup Connection Dialup connection is a means of connecting user to another computer (ISP) or a network such as the Internet with a modem equipped computer. IP AddressIP Address is an identifier for particular machine on a particular network. It is part of scheme to identify computers on the Internet. IP addresses are a set of numbers separated with periods. Figure 59 IP Address Structure Figure 60 IP Address and Subnet Mask http//www. psexam. com Page 53 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Domain Name A domain name is a way to identify and locate computers connected to the Internet. This is a text name of a computer in network or Internet. Domain names are converted to IP Addresses to locate computers and resources. URL URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator that identifies a particular Internet resource.URL help the user to locate web page, gopher service, library catalog and image or text file locations. URLs are the standard addressing system of the www. A complete URL provides the web client with all the information it call for to contact a server and make a request for information. URLs are divided into three basic parts pillowcase http//www. psexam. com/download. htm a. Protocol (http//) The information appearing before the colon in any URL indicates the type of information server or protocol. For example http// indicates that the server to be connected is a www server. b. Domain name (www. psexam. com) The second piece of information is the address of the server. In this example psexam. om is the name of the machine at PS Exam in world wide web. c. Resource name (download. htm) The third piece of information is the path to the actual document requested. In this example the URL indicates that the document in the system directory and is named download. htm. Web Browsing or Surfing Browsing or Surfing is the process of visiting different web sites on the Internet hosted by various organizations. Page 54 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Search Engine The search engine is an interactive tool to help people locate information via the www and it is interface between the user and underlying database.The most popular search engine s are Alta Vista Exite, Lycos, Yahoo , Google, Ask etc. Figure 61 Yahoo, Ask, MSN, Google Search Engines http//www. psexam. com Page 55 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Figure 62 Alta Vista Search Engine Figure 63 Lycos Page 56 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Meta Search Engine A web meta searcher is a tool that helps users to locate information available via the World Wide Web. Web meta-serchers provide a single interface that enables users to search many different search engines, indexes and databases simultaneously. Some meta search engines are Albany. net, Clnet (search. om), Cyberland, Eureaka , Savvysearch and so on. Figure 64 Meta Search Engine Internet Access We can access to the Internet in one of two basic ways, dialing into an Internet Service Providers (ISP) computer or with a direct connection to an ISP. Connecting to ISP by dialing their hunting number (phone number) is called Dial-up connection. We require a username, password and ISPs hunting number to configure Dial up Connection. http//www. psexam. com Page 57 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Extranet An Extranet is a type of Intranet (Internal TCP/IP Network) that has been selectively opened to a firms suppliers, customers. IntranetAn intranet can be defined as a network connecting an affiliated set of clients using standard meshing protocols, esp. TCP/IP and HTTP or as an IP-based network of nodes behind a firewall, or behind several firewall connected by secure, possibly virtual, networks. Web Index A web index is designed to advert users in locating information on the World Wide Web. Web indexes are also referred to as catalogs or directories. A web index collects and organizes resources available via the www. Some of the web indexes are Yahoo , Megallan, Apollo etc. Figure 65 Web Index Page 58 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam HypertextThe hypertext allows for the integration of text, graphics, audio and video on a web pate. This can make it very easy to browse and very exciting to view. A web page may have colorful graphics integrated with textual information. Links on a web page may take you to other web pages, recorded sonds, or digital video clips. A single click on any hyperlink allows you to follow the link to the specified resource. Figure 66 Hypertext and Hyper Link Email Electronic Mail (Email) is one of the most popular & powerful communication tools on the Internet. It is an efficient and effective means of network communication. Email allows you to communicate with people across the globe via electronic media (computer). Email addressAn Email Address identifies a person and the computer for the purpose of exchanging electronic mail message. Example emailprotected com http//www. psexam. com Page 59 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam The email address contains three parts a. Username The admin in example. b. Domain name of organization The psexam in example c. To p Level Domain The com in example Signature Figure 67 Email Client Interface Inbox It is an element of Email Application which collects all incoming mails. Outbox It is an element of Email Application which collects all extrovert mails, if it is created and sent in offline. Page 60 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam TrashThis is an element of Email Application that holds all the deleted emails. Figure 68 New Email Message CC CC stands for Courtesy copy or Carbon Copy. It is an element of Email used to specify the additional recipients when the mail sent needs to be acknowledged to them. http//www. psexam. com Page 61 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam BCC BCC stands for Blank Carbon Copy. It is similar to CC but the address of other receivers will not be shown to the receiver. Reply A reply is the response of an email you receive. After you read a mail and need to reply it you can use this feature. Forward A mail received can be sent to be othe r recipients known as forwarding. AttachmentsThe documents created in other applications such as word, excel can be sent along with the email message. These documents that are sent with email is known as attachment. Documents, audio/video files, Zip files etc. can be sent as attachment along with email message. Bounced When a mail sent cant reach to destination and returns back, this is known as bounced. This happens often when the recipients address is wrong or the server at the recipients end is down or recipients inbox is full. Netiquette It is essential for all users on the internet to recognize that they are responsible for their own individual actions while using the net. Netiquette is simply the use of common courtesy and polite way while using the net. EmoticonsThe convention of expressing feeling or a joke in symbolic form by user in Email or Chatting for example for smiling for winking for frowning etc are emoticons. Page 62 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Sures h Khanal for PS Exam Figure 69 Emoticons http//www. psexam. com Page 63 Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Wish you best of luck Page 64 http//www. psexam. com Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS Exam Visit New PS Exam Better Interface and greater possibility to share and interact. wear upont forget to subscribe http//new. psexam. com ICT Trends A Blog about blogging Trace the path of Suresh Khanal in blogging, promoting and legitimise blogs. http//www. icttrends. com http//www. psexam. com Page 65

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