Monday, April 1, 2019
Seed priming technique
localise primer proficiencyAbs package sow in underfur is a proficiency by which sows atomic number 18 parti exclusivelyy hydrous to a point where sprouting processes begin besides radical outlet does not occur. fuzee screwing be plunge effective both for legumes and element crops. A pot experiment was conducted under green house conditions at Pir Mehr Ali shah, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during summer of 2007. The origins were revivifyd by traditional soakage (hydro solid ground), osmo-conditioning (soaking of ejaculates in aerated, utter- pee-potential solutions) using, chiliad di-hydrogen phosphate KH2PO4, Mannitol, Polyethylene glycol (PEG), sodium molyb view (Na2MO4.2H2O) and hormonal fix by using salicylic corrosive (SA). The ranges of osmotic potential for all the priming interferences were -0.5 to -1.2 M Pa. All the vivification give-and-takes squarely affected put brawn, biomass, parentage, mop up duration and nodulation. Osmopriming u sing P 0.60% applied in the shape of KH2PO4 significantly alter sow in slide fastener in terms of mean payoff time (5.52 to 4.51 years), final germination percentageage (74 to 89%) report and take aim space and nodulation (0 to 4 nodules sowling-1) fol showtimeed by mannitol priming (Mannitol 2%). Overall all the beginning priming techniques significantly amendd the vigour of mung noggin reservoired playerlings as compare to control. The use of polyethylene glycol is expensive and gave confusable results as for dry generatoring so it should be replaced by hydropriming in further experiments. It is recommended that nutrient-priming and osmopriming can be used as effective tool for liveliness of mungbean seeds, for better growth and seedling mental institution.Key words Osmo-priming, hydropriming, vigna radiata, seedling vigour, nodulationINTRODUCTION root priming is a practice by which seeds are partially hydrated to a point where germination processes begi n but radical increment does not occur (Harris et al., 2000). disgorge priming can be found effective for legumes i.e., yields of Mungbean and Chickpea were tilt magnitude substantially by priming seeds for 8 h before sowing (Harris et al., 1999 Musa et al., 2001 Rashid et al., 2004).Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is grown on over 200,000 ha with production of more(prenominal) than 100,000 t under rainfed and irrigated conditions in Pakistan. Yields for the rainfed area are generally execrable and variable out-of-pocket to sparse, erratic rainfall and marginal soils. Mungbean production in Punjab Province is dependent mainly on come in irrigation but it is also grown under rain fed conditions. In the Southern region of Pakistan rainfall is scanty and mungbean is grown with climb irrigation only. scummy crop establishment is a major restraint for mungbean production (Naseem et. al., 1997 Rahmianna et al., 2000) and amplyschool yields can be associated with early vi gor (Kumar et al., 1989).Improved seed spiritedness techniques are being used to reduce the germination time, to get synchronised germination, change germination rate, and improve seedling stand in many horticultural (Bradford et al. 1990 Rudrapal and Nakamura 1998) and discipline crops like wheat, maize (Aquilla and Tritto 1991 Basra et al. 2002) and more recently strain (Farooq et al. 2004). These invigoration techniques include hydropriming, osmoconditioning (Basra et al. 2005), osmohardening (Farooq et al. 2006) and hardening (Farooq et al. 2004). These discourses can also be employed for preliminary and better nursery stand establishment (Lee et al. 1998).This culture was initiated to explore the effects of aerated hydration, hormonal priming (salicylic acid), nutrient priming (Phosphorous and molybdenum loading) and osmo-conditioning on mungbean (vigna radiata) seed vigour under green house conditions.MATERIALS AND METHODS microbe clobber seeded players of mungbean c ultivar Chakwal Mung-97 (CH-MUNG 97) were obtained from Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Chakwal. The seeds were sterilized by using 30% hypochlorite for five minutes and then washed three times with distilled water.Seed TreatmentsThe following seed priming treatments were appliedNutrient primingThe seeds were soaked in aerated solution of phosphorous (P 0.60 1.20 %) and molybdate (Mo 0.02 0.04 %). The sources for phosphorous and molybdenum were potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4.2H2O), respectively.OsmoprimingThe seeds were soaked in aerated solutions of mannitol (mannitol 2 % 4 %) and polyethylene glycole (Polyethylene glycol 5% 10%).Hormonal primingThe seeds were soaked in aerated solution of salicylic acid (SA 10 20 ppm)Post treatment operationsAfter seed treatments the seeds were given surface washing three times by distilled water. Aeration was also applied by pump. Air dried soil was placed in 10-cm tall charge plate pots with 6-cm diameter. The soil used in the pot experiment was sandy loam having pH of 7.9. ground was made friable by scratching the surface with a two cm wide table fork to a reasonableness of 1-cm of moist soil. The seeds were also inoculated before sowing. Ten numbers of seeds were planted in each pot and thinned to six plants per pot. Similar amount of water applied in regular intervals to all pots under study. The plants were harvested 21 days later sowing (DAS), and seedlings root/shoot duration were taken. The seedlings were dried at 75 oC for 48 hours and the dry matter was finally determined. The complete randomized excogitation (CRD) was used in pot experiment. outline of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare treatment means.RESULTSThe info assigned that different seed priming treatments had significant (p in that location was significant (pThere was significant (pThe data depicts that seed priming had significant impact on the root as come up as shoot length, 2 1 days subsequently sowing (DAS). All the priming treatments significantly increase the root as well as shoot length of seedlings. The data revealed that T5 (P 0.60%) and T9 (mannitol 2 %) gave the best results. The lowest root length (4.56 cm) was find in control. T4 (Mo 0.04%) showed lower root length than T2 and T3 (Mo 0.02 %) and high-pitcheder(prenominal) from control. Treatment T6 (P 1.2%) showed lower root length than T5 (P 0.06%) and at par with T1 and T4. Hormonal priming using salicylic acid (SA 20 ppm) also showed lower root length than T7 (SA 10 ppm) and at par with T4 and T6. The data also showed that T10 (mannitol 4%) is lower than T9 (mannitol 2%) and at par with T7. The data also depicts that T12 (PEG 10%) showed lower root length as compare to T11 (PEG 5 %) which showed also higher root length than all other treatments except T2 and T9 (Figure 1).Maximum shoot length observed in the T5 (P 0.06 %) followed by T9 (mannitol 2%). The data also depicts t he shortest shoot length was observed in the control. The data also revealed that T4 resulted in lower shoot length than T3 and T2. It is also evident that T6 is lower than T5 and at par with T3 and T2 (Figure 1). T8 showed higher shoot length than T7 and at par with T2, T3 and T6. Treatments T9 and T10 and T11, T12 also showed similar results. backchatEarlier and more akin germination and outlet was observed in gear up seeds as indicated by lower MET and E50, higher germination percent and root and shoot dry weight (tables 1). Lesser MET and E50 specify the preceding and rapid germination. These findings support the prior cream on canola (Brassica compestris) (Zheng et al., 1994), wheat (Triticum aestivum) (Nayyar et al., 1995) and sieve (Oryza sativa) (Lee and Kim 2000 Basra et al., 2003) who described improved germination rate and percentage in seeds subjected to hydropriming and seed hardening for 24 h.This study revealed that osmo, nutrient and hormonal priming could invi gorate mungbean seeds. One of the reasons for decreased MET is that during pre-sowing seed treatments the dormancy of the seed is broken and the seed bio-chemical processes commences, which lead to blistering germination and emergence (Farooq et al., 2006). Seed priming ensured the victorian hydration, which resulted in sharpend activity of a-amylase that hydrolyzed the macro starch molecules in to small and simple sugars. The availability of instant food to the germinating seed gave a mobile start as indicated by lower E50 and MET in treated seeds (Farooq et al.,2006) during priming de novo synthesis of a-amylase is also documented (Lee and Kim, 2000). Early emergence as indicated by lower E50 and MET in treated seeds whitethorn be due to the rapid production of germination metabolites (Saha et al. 1990 Lee Kim 2000 Basra et al. 2005) and better genetic repair, i.e. earlier and faster synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins (Bray et al. 1989). Gray and Steckel (1983) also conclud ed that priming increased embryo length, which resulted in early initiation of germination in cultivated carrot seeds.The increased shoot and root length in primed plants can be due to metabolic repair of damage during treatment and that change in germination events i.e., changes in enzyme concentration and formation and reduction of regress time between drink and radicle emergence (Bradford et al., 1990). Treated seeds had stronger embryos that were able to more easily emerge from seeds (Harris et al., 2005). These results are also in line with the findings of Sekiya et al. (2009) who describe enhanced root and shoot length of seedlings obtained from P enriched seeds. To contribute to plant growth and emergence seed priming has been widely report technique (Harris et al., 2005). Ajouri et al. (2004) reported a stimulation of P and Zn uptake, as well as an improved germination and seedling growth in barley after(prenominal) soaking seeds in water and in solutions containing 5-5 00 mM P.It has been also reported invigorated seeds had higher vigour levels (Ruan et al. 2002), which resulted in earlier start of emergence as high vigour seed lots performed better than low vigour ones (Hampton and Tekrony 1995). Yamauchi and Winn (1996) also reported positive correlation between seed vigour and celestial sphere performance in rice.Earlier, Zheng et al. (2002) reported earlier and uniform emergence in rice seeds osmoprimed with KCl and CaCl2 and mixed salts under flooded conditions. Hydropriming improved the early and vigorous crop establishment in maize (Nagar et al. 1998) and genus Helichrysum bracteatum L. (Grzesik Nowak 1998). However, other studies resulted in poor emergence from hydroprimed Kentucky bluegrass seeds under field conditions (Pill Necker 2001). However Nascimento and West (1999) reported early germination of primed seeds but not recorded any improvement in the growth of seedlings in muskmelon seeds under laboratory conditions. Confounding r esults, where priming did not show any beneficial results, also reported by different inquiry workers (Mwale et al., 2003 Giri and Schillinger, 2003).The increase of nodulation, seedling vigor and tolerance to stresses may depend on versatile factors occurring during priming treatment. One hypothesis is that benefits of priming can be due to metabolic repair of damage during treatment and that change in germination events i.e., changes in enzyme concentration and formation and reduces lag time between imbibition and radicle emergence (Bradford et al., 1990). One of the possible reasons for early nodule formation may be due to enhanced activity of a-amylase and sucrose synthase in primed seeds which may facilitate plant growth and vigor (Lee and Kim, 2000).From the present study it may be concluded that seed priming may enhance the seedling vigour of mungbean. Nutrient priming using phosphorous and osmopriming with mannitol were the most(prenominal) efficient priming treatments in this study. In further research work biochemical seat for the enhanced phenology of mungbean may be evaluated.REFERENCESAquilla D. A., V. Tritto. 1991. sprouting and biochemical activities in wheat seeds following delayed harvesting, ageing and osmotic priming. Seed Sci.Tech.1973 82.Anonymous.2009. Agriculture statistics of Pakistan. Ministry of Food,Agriculture and Livestock. Economic wing, Islamabad. Pp. 46-47.Association of Official Seed Analysis (AOSA). 1998. Rules for testing seeds. J. Seed Tec.121-112.Association of Official Seed Analysis (AOSA).1983.Seed postal code Testing Handbook. Contribution No. 32 to the Handbook on Seed Testing.Barber, S. A. 1995. state nutrient bioavailability, 2nd edn. Willey, New YorkBasra, S. M. A., M. Farooq, K. Hafeez and N. Ahmad. 2004. Osmohardening A new technique for rice seed invigoration. Int. rice Res.Notes.2980 81.Basra SMA, Farooq M, Tabassum R. 2005. Physiological and biochemical aspects of seed vigor sweetener treatments in exqui site rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Sci.Tech.33623 628.Basra S. M. A., M. N. Zia, T. Mehmood, I. Afzal, A. Khaliq.2002. simile of different invigoration techniques in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Pak. J Arid Agric.511 16.Basra, S. M A., Farooq, M. and Tabassum, R. 2005. Physiological and biochemical aspects of seed vigor enhancement treatments in book rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Sci.Tech.33623-628.Basra, S.M.A., Farooq, M. and Khaliq,A.2003.Comparative study of pre-sowing seed enhancement treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pak. J. Life Soc. Sci.15-9.Basra, S.M.A., Farooq, M., Hafeez, K and Ahmed, N.2004.Osmohardening A new technique for rice seed invigoration. Inter. rice Res.Notes.2774-75.Basra, S.M.A., Farooq, M., Tabassum, R. and Ahmed, N. 2005. Physiological and biochemical aspects of seed vigor enhancement treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Sci.Tech.33 623-628.Basra, S.M.A., M. Farooq and A. Khaliq. 2003.Comparative study of pre-sowing seed enhanc ement treatments in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pakistan J. Life Soc.Sci.1 5-9.Basra, S.M.A., Zia, M.N., Mehmood, T., Afzal, I. and Khaliq, A.2002.Comparision of different invigoration techniques in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Pak. J. Arid Agri.511-16.Bose, B. and Mishra, T. 1992. Response of wheat seed to pre-sowing seed treatments with Mg (NO3). Annals.Agri.Res.13132-136.Bradford KJ, Steiner JJ, Trawatha SE.1990. Seed priming influence on germination and emergence of bombard seed lots. Crop Sci.30718 721.Bradford, K.J., 1990. A water relations analysis of the seed germination rates. Plant Physiol.94840-849.Bray C.M., P.A. Davison, M. Ashraf, R.M. Taylor, Biochemical changes during osmopriming of green onion seeds, Ann.Bot.Lond.63185-193.Bray, C.M., Davison, P.A., Ashraf, M., Taylor, R.M. 1989. Biochemical changes during osmopriming of leek seeds. Annals Bot.36185-193.Chojnowski M., F. Corbineau, D. Cme, Physiological and biochemical changes induced in sunflower seeds by osmopriming and subsequent drying, storage and aging, Seed Sci.Res.7323-331.Coolbear, P., Francis, A., Grierson, D.1984.The effect of low temperature pre-sowing treatment under the germination performance and membrane integrity of artificially older tomato seeds. J.Exp.Bot.351609-1617.Rudrapal, D., S. Nakamura, The effect of hydration-dehydration pretreatments on mad apple and radish seed viability and vigour. Seed Sci.Tech.16123-130.Dahal, P., Bradford, K.J., 1990. nitty-grittys of priming and endosperm integrity on seed germinationDas, J. C., and A. K. Choudhury. 1996. Effect of seed hardening, potassium fertilizer, and paraquat as anti-transpirant on rainfed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Indian J. Agron. 41397-400.Duman, I. 2006. Effects of seed priming with PEG or K3PO4 on Germination and Seedling Growth in Lettuce. Pak. J. Bio. Sci. 9 (5) 923-928Ellis, R.A. and E.H. Roberts. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in Orthodox seeds. Seed Sci. and Technol. 9 373-4 09Farooq M, Basra SMA, Cheema MA, Afzal I. 2006. Integration of pre-sowing soaking, chilling and heatingtreatments for vigor enhancement in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Sci.Tech.34499 506.Farooq M, Basra SMA, Hafeez K, Ahmad N. 2005. Thermal hardening A new seed vigor enhancement tool in rice. J.Integ.PlantBio.4787 193.Farooq M, Basra SMA, Hafeez K, Warriach EA. 2004. The influence of high and low temperature treatments on the seed germination and seedling vigor of large-grained and fine rice. Int.RiceRes.Notes.2969 71.Farooq M, Basra SMA, Hafeez K. 2006. Seed invigoration by osmohardening in fine and coarse rice. Seed Sci.Tech.34181 187.Farooq M, Basra SMA, Karim HA, Afzal I. 2004. Optimization of seed hardening techniques for rice seed invigoration. Emir.J.Agric.Sci.1648 57.Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Hafeez, K and Ahmad, N. 2005.Thermal hardening a new seed vigor enhancement tool in rice. Ac.Bot.Sin.47187-193.Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Hafeez, K and Warriach, E.A. 2004.The i nfluence of high and low temperature treatments on the seed germination and seedling vigor of coarse and fine rice. Inter. Rice Res.2969-71.Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Tabassum, R. and Ahmed, N. 2006. paygrade of seed vigour enhancement techniques on physiological and biochemical basis in coarse rice (Oryza sativa L.)Seed Sci.Tech.34741-750.Farooq, M., S.M. A. Basra and R.Tabassum.2006. Enhancing the performance of direct seeded fine rice by seed priming. Plant Prod. Sci.4 446-456.Fu, J.R., X.H. Lu, R.Z. Chen, B.Z. Zhang, Z.S. Liu, Z.S. Li, et al.,Osmoconditioning of peanut (Arachis hypogen L.) seeds with PEG to improve vigour and some biochemical activities. Seed Sci.Tech.16197-212.Giri, G. S and W. F. Schillinger, 2003. Seed priming winter wheat for germination, emergence and yield. Crop Sci., 43 2135-2141Grandi, T.M., G. J. Marinho, D. A. Lopes, and A. P. Araujo, 1999. Effect of seed phosphorous concentration on nodulation and growth of three common bean cultivars. J. Plant Nut. 22 1599-1611.Grzesik M, Nowak J. 1998. Effects of matriconditioning and hydropriming on Helichrysum bracteatum L. seed germination, seedling emergence and stress tolerance. Seed Sci Technol 26 363 376.Hampton, J. G. and D. M. Tekrony. 1995. Handbook of ISTA vigour test methods. tertiary ed. Zurich ISTA. 10. Jeng TL, Sung JM. 1994. Hydration effect on lipid peroxidation and peroxide-scavenging enzyme activity of artificially vulcanised peanut seeds. Seed Sci Techn. 22 531 539Harris, D. 1996. The effects of manure, genotype, seed priming, depth and date of sowing on the emergence and early growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in semi-arid Botswana.Harris, D. 2002. On-farm seed priming for better crops in marginal areas of developing Soil Tillage Res. 4073-88.Harris, D., Joshi, A., Khan, P. A., Gothkar, P. and Sodhi, P. S. 1999. On-farm seed priming in semi-arid agriculture festering and evaluation in maize, rice and chickpea in India using participatory methods. Experi.Agri.3515 -29.Harris, D., Raghuwanshi, B. S., Gangwar, J. S., Singh, S. C., Joshi, K. D., Rashid, A. and Hollington, P. A. 2001. Participatory evaluation by farmers of on-farm seed priming in wheat in India, Nepal and Pakistan. Experi.Agri.37403-415.Harris, D., Rashid, A., Hollington, P. A., Jasi, L. and Riches, C. 2002. Prospects of improving maize yields with on-farm seed priming. Sustainable Maize fruit Systems for Nepal Proceedings of a Maize Symposium 2001, 180-185, (Eds Rajbhandari, N. P., Ransom, J. K., Adikhari, K. and Palmer, A. F. E.) Kathmandu, Nepal. KathmanduHarris, D., Tripathi, R. S. and Joshi, A. 2000. On-farm seed priming to improve cropestablishment and yield in direct-seeded rice. In IRRI International Workshop on Dry-seeded Rice engineering, Bangkok, 25-28 January 2000. The International Rice Institute, Manila, The Philippines, 164 pp.Harris, D., Tripathi, R. S. and Joshi, A.2002. On-farm seed priming to improve crop establishment and yield in dry direct-seeded rice. Proc eedings of the International Workshop on Direct Seeding in Asian Rice Systems Strategic Research Issues and Opportunities, JanuaryHisashi, K.N and A.M. Francisco.2005.Effects of 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone on the germination and a-amylase activity in lettuce seeds. J. Plant Physiol.162 1304-1307.Islam, A.K.M.A., N. Anuar and Z. Yaakob, 2009. Effect of genotypes and pre-sowing treatments on seed germination behavior of jatropha. Asian J. Plant Sci. 8 433-439.Kaur, S. A. K. Gupta and N. Kaur. 2005. Seed Priming Increases Crop Yield Possibly by Modulating Enzymes of Sucrose Metabolism in Chickpea. J. Agronomy Crop Science 191, 81-87Kumar, R., Tyagi, C. S. and Ram, C. 1989. Association of laboratory seed parameters with field performance in mungbean. Seeds Farms.1533-36.Lee SY, Lee JH, Hong SB, Yun SH. 1998. Effect of humidification and hardening treatment on seed germination of rice. Kore.J.CropSci.43157 160.Lee, S.S. and Kim, J.H. 1999. Morphological change, sugar content, a-amylase activity of rice seeds under various priming conditions. Kore.J.CropSci.44138-142.Lee, S.S. and Kim, J.H. 2000. Total sugars, a-amylase activity and germination after priming of normal and aged rice seeds. Kore.J.CropSci.45108-111.Lee, S.S., Kim, J.H. Hong, S.B. and Yun, S.H. 1998. Effect pf humidification and hardening treatment on seed germination of rice. Kore.J.CropSci.43157-160.McDonald M.B. 1999. Seed priming, in M. Black, J.D. Bewley (Eds.), Seed Technology and its biological hindquarters, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, UK. 287-325.McDonald, M.B. 2000.Seed priming. In Seed Technology and Its Biological Basis (eds. M. Black and J.D. Bewley), Sheffield Acad. Press, Sheffield, England. pp. 287-326.Musa, A. M., D. Harris, C. Johansen and J. Kumar. 2001. Short duration chickpea to replace fellow after AMAN rice The role of on-farm seed priming in the high barind tract of Bangladesh. Expl Agric. 37 509-521.M. Black and J.D. Bewley (eds.) Sheffield Acad. Press, Sheffield, En gland.McDonald M.B. 1999. Seed priming, in M. Black, J.D. Bewley (Eds.), Seed Technology and its Biological Basis, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, UK. 287-325.Mwale, S.S., Hamusimbi and K. Mwansa, 2003. Germination, emergence and growth of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) in response to osmotic seed priming. Seed Sci. Technol., 31 199-206.Nagar R. P., M. Dadlani and S. P. Sharma. 1998. Effect of hydropriming on field emergence and crop growth of maize genotypes. Seed Sci Res 26 1 5.Nayyar, H., D. P. Walia and B. L. Kaishta.1995. Performance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds primed with growth regulators and inorganic salts. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 65 112-116,Nascimento, W. M. ansd S. H. West, 1999. Muskmelon transplant production in response to seed priming. Hort.Tech.953-55.Naseem, S. B., Khan, A. H., Islam, M., Mollah, U. and Ali, M. A. 1997. Effect of seeding methods and varying surface soil wet on the stand establishment of mungbean (Vigna radiat a L.). Bang. J.Scienti.Indus.Res.32295-301.Nerson, H. and Govers, A. 1986. Salt priming of muskmelon seeds for low temperature germination.Scien.Hort.2885-91.Peoples, M. B., D. F. Herridge and J. K. Ladha. 1995. Biological nitrogen fixation. An efficient source of nitrogen for sustainable pastoral production. Plant and Soil. 174 3-28.Pill, W. G. and A. D. Necker. 2001. The effects of seed treatments on germination and establishment of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Seed Sci Technol 29 65 72.Pill, W.G. 1995. Low water potential and pre-sowing germination treatments to improve seed quality. In A.S. Basra (ed.). Seed quality. Food Products Press, Binghampton, N.Y. , p. 319-359Ruan, S., Xue Q and Tylkowska R. 2002. Effects of seed priming on germination and health of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds. Seed Sci Technol 30 451 458.Rahmianna, A.A., T. Adisarwanto, G. Kirchhof and H.B. So. 2000. Crop establishment of legumes in rain fed lowland rice-based cropping system. Soil Tillage Res.56 67-82.Rashid, A., Harris, D., P. Hollington and Ali, S. 2004. On-farm seed priming reduces yield losses of mungbean (Vigna indiata) associated with mungbean yellow arial mosaic virus in NWFP of Pakistan. Crop protect. 23 1119-1124.Rudrapal D, Nakamura S. 1998. The effect of hydration dehydration pre-treatment on eggplant and radish seed viability and vigor. Seed Sci.Tech.26123 130.Rudrapal, D., S. Nakamura. 1988. The effect of hydration-dehydration pretreatments on eggplant and radish seed viability and vigour, Seed Sci.Technol. 16 123-130.Saha R, Mandal AK, Basu RN. 1990. Physiology of seed invigoration treatments in soybean (Glycine max L.). Seed. Seed Technology and its Biological Basis, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, UK, 1999, pp. 287-325.Sekiya, N. and K. Yano. 2009. Seed P-enrichment as an effective P supply to wheat. Plant and Soil. 327 347-354Steiner, J. J. 1990. Seedling rate of development index indicator of vigor and seedling growth response Crop science.3 01264-1271Yamauchi and Winn T. 1996. Rice seed vigor and seedling establishment in anaerobic soil. Crop Sci 36 680 686.Yoon, B.Y.H., H.J. Lang and B.G. Cobb.1997. Priming with salt solutions improves germination of pansy seed at high temperatures.Hort.Sci.32 248-250.Zheng G.H., Wilen R.W., Slinkard A.E., Gusta L.V. 2002. Enhancement of canola seed germination and seedling emergence at low temperature by priming. Crop Sci.341589-1593.Zheng G.H., R.W. Wilen, A. E. Slinkard and L.V. Gusta. 1994. Enhancement of canola seed germination and seedling emergence at low temperature by priming. Crop Science, 34 1589-1593.