Thursday, April 4, 2019

Genetic Modification: Methodology, Ethics and Importance

cistrontic Modification Methodology, morals and wideness divisortic modification methodology, ethicality and importance of understandingSarah Bernadette Da tail assemblyayWord Count (excluding references) 1418 wordsIntroductionThe 21st century is a time where science is progressing at rapid speed with the development of new methods used to repair the livelihood of human life. Such methods include the controversial genetic modification of organisms and products, in order to spend a penny effective vaccines, food sources, etc. (Glenn, 2013). Australia worry many nations genetically modifies some of its food and plants (i.e. cows, chicken, wheat, cotton, etc.) ( accountability of the agent engineering regulator, 2014) and before being accessible to the public, ar heavily regulated by the Gene applied science Regulator (GTR). Furthermore, scientists and organizations such CSIRO (CSIRO, 2010) ar constantly finding means to improve the efficiency of the methods and its ethical ity. As such, scientific render regarding genetic modification is constantly being updated.Genetic modification can potentially offer terrific benefits, but as it is settle down relatively new, there are many uncertainties regarding its methods and ethicality. Thus, much of the public is still unsure on where they stand. The need for current and reasonable information round this field is undeniably grievous for the public, in order to gain a better understanding around its advantages and disadvantages. And once this knowledge is gained, they can make a sound decision on where they want to stand with the progression of this field of research. kickoff 1 eBook fileSource/AuthorThe eBook file, National poser of Ethical Principles in Gene engine room 2012 Outlines the ethical principles and values relevant to gene technology and aims to promote well-informed ethical decision qualification (Gene Technology ethical motive and Community Consultative Committee, 2012). The research into the guidelines outlined in the book has been done by the Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee (GTECCC) under the guidance and watch of the Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (OGTR). The GTECCC provides advice on the request of the Gene Technology Regulator (GTR), or the Gene Technology Ministerial Council (GTMC) regarding ethical issues and policy principles with relation to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products (GM).The 11 appointments for the committee are done by the Hon Catherine King, Parliamentary Secretary for Health and Ageing after consulting the GTR, State/Territory Ministers and organizations relating to science, consumers, heath, environmental and industry (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, n.d.). The members chosen to be part of this committee are experts who range from association consultation, ethics, genetic research and risk communication just to name a few. For example, Donald Chalmers, the Chair of the GTECCC, is a elevated Professor at the University of Tasmania and is the Director of the Centre for Law and Genetics and Ms Corrinna Lange, another member, has a riches of knowledge regarding science communication through her various roles within public and private sector organizations. (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2012).The fear of bias by the authors while constructing the framework due to conflict of interests, is easily solved as members are subject to strict apocalypse of interest provisionscontained in the Gene Technology Regulations 2001 in which, it is stated that Before the Minister appoints a person as an expert advisory mustiness obtaina declaration setting out all direct or indirect interests ( just Advisers disclosure of interests, 2001). The compiled research is also subject to act in accordance to the Gene Technology Act 2000 (Cwth) in which s.3 states that the object of this Act is to protect the health and safety of peopleprotects the environment by identi fying risks posed by or as a result of gene technology. As such, the information provided by the GTECCC in their eBook publication stating the framework for ethics and decision making regarding genetic research and modification is highly conjectural. publishing companyThe Australian Commonwealth Government is a non-partisan institute regarding genetic modification and is undoubtedly established as being credible and well-respected. The credibility of a book lies not barely with the author but, also with the publishing company the organization/institute who funds or supports the research of the author/s. The organization/institute and authors are wherefore responsible for the information being published. In this case, the funding and support of this eBook, the National Framework of Ethical Principles in Gene Technology 2012 (Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee, 2012) research came from the Australian Commonwealth Government. As the information published i nside therefore not only reflects the views and opinions of the author, but is also considered as credible information by the Australian Commonwealth Government. Therefore, as the Australian Commonwealth Government is a credible publisher, the eBooks (Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee, 2012) credibility is also reinforced.Source 2 Journal termPeer-Review ProcessPeer-review is a commonly used process during the editing phase of scientific journals to distinguish what articles displace to be published in the journal are credible, relevant and publish worthy. The process requires the article to be sent and scrutinised by experts in the same field who are considered as peer-reviewers. They asses the validity, significance and originality (Sense About Science, 2005) and at last act as an error detection system (Science Media Centre, 2003). In order to asses these criterions, the results and experiments are re-tested by these peer-reviewers to hold back that the findings are accurate. A decision is then made on whether the article should be published or rejected. If the decision is for the article to be published, it will either be sent back to the author/s for the final review or sometimes, may go straight into publishing after gaining the approval of the knob Editor (Understanding Science, 2014).My chosen journal article (Macdonald et al., 2012) was initially handed into the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) on declination 4, 2011 for review before being published in their online journal. One of the many peer-reviewers assigned to the article was R. Michael Roberts, University of Missouri, Columbia. Dr Roberts is a member of the National Academy of Science and his research areas include utilizing human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and generate pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) by reprogramming. (Department of Biochemistry University of Missouri, n.d.). The knowledge he holds in the field therefore, bodes his sound ability as a reviewe r for the article, proving him capable of making good judgement on whether the claims and conclusions stated are credible.Photographic demonstrationPhotographic evidence is an effective way to illustrate the processes and results that should be reached during an experiment. It provides the experimenter with an indication on whether the methods are accurately followed. The Materials and Methods section of the journal article (Macdonald et al., 2012), with its various reference images fulfils this purpose. For example, cast 6, part B in the Materials and Methods section, indicates how the crosswise of a 3 day embryo a day after the injection of GFP-expressing PGCs should look like (Macdonald et al., 2012).Furthermore, the results are set out in clear graphs which are annotated. This can be seen in Figure 2, part D of the Results section, which contains a graph comparing the stable transfection rates of piggyBac and Tol2 transposons in PGCs. (Macdonald et al., 2012). The annotations also indicate that the collected and graphed data represent a minimum of four independent experiments. The clarity and in-depth expression, through photographic evidence and compiled data, leave little room for error as it indicates what outcomes should be reached by their methods. This not only makes it easy for those trialling the experiment to compare results, but it also expresses their strong belief that their research is credible.SummaryThe infinite amounts of information, found on the internet and at libraries regarding genetic modification, can overwhelm individuals when they first begin researching to prod a better understanding n early on the field. Furthermore, as the field is constantly updating and newer efficient methodologies are being discovered, new information can grow old relatively fast and thus put down its credibility. The two scholarly sources, the eBook (Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee, 2012) and the journal article, (Macdonal d et al., 2012) I have chosen, are in my opinion examples of credible information. I assessed their credibility under the following criteria source/author and publisher for the eBook the peer-review process and photographic evidence for the journal article, and found that the criteria were fulfilled. Thus, indicating that the information from the two scholarly sources is credible. Therefore, to conclude, the information within the two sources can be used to either grasp a better understanding about the field of genetic modification, or be used as references in university research assignment tasks.ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2013). The Rules for Federal Regulations I. The Code of Federal Regulations. Retrieved from http// (2010). Gene technology. Retrieved from http// of the University of Missouri. (2006). Welcome to the Roberts Lab Website. Retrieved from http// of Biochemistry University of Missouri. (n.d.). R. Michael Roberts. Retrieved from http// Advisers disclosure of interests, 23 Gene Technology Regulations 1 (2001)Gene Technology Act 2000 (Cwth) s.3 (Austl.)Glenn, L. M. (2013). Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics. Retrieved from http// of the Gene Technology Regulator. (2012). GTECCC members. Retrieved from http// of the Gene Technology Regulator. (2014). Record of GM Product Dealings. Retrieved from http// of the Gene Technology Regulator. (n.d.). genetically Modified Product approvals. Retrieved from http// ogtr/publishing.nsf/content/gmoprod-1Office of the Gene Technology Regulator. (n.d.). The Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee. Retrieved from http// Media Centre (2003) Communicating peer review in a soundbite, p.1.Sense about Science. (2004). Peer Review AND THE ACCEPTANCE OF NEW SCIENTIFIC IDEAS. London, England Author.Sense about Science. (2005). I DONT KNOW WHAT TO BELIEVEMaking sense of science stories. London, England Author.Sense about Science. (2009). MAKING SENSE OF GM. London, England Author.Understanding Science University of California Museum of Paleontology. (n.d.). Scrutinizing science Peer Review. Retrieved from http// Library University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (n.d.). Is it scholarly? Tips for critically evaluating your information resources. Retrieved from http// University of Western Australia Med Library. (n.d.). Vancouver citation style. Retrieved from http// of Western Australia Science Library. (n.d.). APA citation style. Retrieved from http// of Seychelles University. (n.d.). APA REFERENCING A Brief Guide. Retrieved from http// for two scholarly sourcesPeer-Reviewed Journal Article (Primary Source)APAMacdonald, J., Taylor, L., Sherman, A., Kawakami, K., Takahashi, Y., Sang, Helen M., McGrew, Michael J. (2012). Efcient genetic modication and germ-line transmission of native germ cells using piggyBac and Tol2 transposons.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,109(23), E1466-E1472.doi10.1073/pnas.1118715109VancouverMacdonald J, Taylor L, Sherman A, Kawakami K, Takahashi Y, Sang HM, McGrew MJ. Efcient genetic modication and germ-line transmission of primordial germ ce lls using piggyBac and Tol2 transposons. Internet. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2012. cited 2014 March 15 109(23) about 7 p.. Available fromhttp// Literature (PDF file)APAGene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee. (2012).National Framework of Ethical Principles in Gene Technology 2012PDF. Retrieved fromhttp//$FILE/gtecccethicalprinciples2012.pdfVancouverGene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee. National Framework of Ethical Principles in Gene Technology 2012 Internet. Commonwealth of Australia 2012 revised 2014 Feb 2 cited 2014 Mar 15. Available fromhttp//$FILE/gtecccethicalprinciples2012.pdfSarah Bernadette Dacanay

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